Autism Spectrum Disorder: Definition, Symptoms, Types, and Causes

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Definition

Autism meaning is a complex neurological and behavioral disorder that includes impairments in developmental language and social interaction and communication skills that are combined with other rigid and repetitive behaviors. Due to the variety of symptoms, this state is named as autism spectrum disorder ASD. autism in adults contains a lot of symptoms, levels of impairment and skills.

According to Autism Speaks, Children with autism have trouble in communication with others. They even do not understand how to express themselves and other’s expressions, feelings, and behaviors. The hindrance of communication is both verbal and physical. They mostly have the rigid and stereotyped behavior and movements; like hand flapping, rocking and pacing. They just cling to one thing, word or an object. They are considered quite anti-social as they do not interact with others and sometimes they so rudely avoid the individual, object or a situation. They are so clingy about their living schedule and attachment objects that they can not bear any sort of change in them.

Children with autism may also suffer from a degree of cognitive impairment. But their impairment does not cause hindrance in their nonverbal abilities. they perform so well in nonverbal intelligence tests. They utilize their these nonverbal skills to develop skills of drawing, solving problems, memorization and creating music.

Autism Sign and Symptoms

Its symptoms vary in its nature. As every individual is different from everyone. But, generally, its symptoms appear in the first 3 years of age. Some have shown it since their birth. Its chances of occurrence are higher in boys as compared to boys. O social, economic, biological, racial educational circumstances can determine its cause of being happening. The level of not communicating symptom may observe when the social communication level exceeds and the child’s performance observed. According to Autism test, Its prominent symptoms are:

  • Lack of Eye Contact
  • Lack of social interaction
  • Lack of confidence
  • Quite rigid and stubborn movements
  • Clinged to a specific object, person or a word
  • Highly intelligent in performing nonverbal intelligence tests
  • Lack of verbal communication

The range and severity of the symptoms vary in its nature. Some of the parents observed autism symptoms at the age of 1-year and most of the symptoms significantly observed at the age of 2-3 years. These symptoms are longitudinal. It means that they remain with the person for the whole life. It is not possible for the sufferer of autism to get better as growing older may enhance it not minimize it.

Types of autism spectrum disorders

Autism is a cluster of symptoms. That is why it is called a syndrome and placed under the umbrella of autism spectrum disorders.  under the umbrella of  Autism Spectrum Disorder or a social communication disorder  have the following disorders:

PDD or Pervasive Developmental Disorder: It is also known as atypical autism. In this category, all the residuals who do not fit in rest of the other categories may be kept in it.

Autistic Disorder: It is characterized by the difficulty in social interaction imaginative play and communication in the children who are above age 3.

Rett Syndrome: This disorder was kept in the category of ASD. But it is now considered that it has more severe and genetically based symptoms.  The range of communication ends in it as the communication of its affected children got ceased by the age 1-4. And most shocking thing its sufferers usually have a severe cognitive impairment.

Asperger’s syndrome: This disorder is characterized by the same social problems that are present in the autistic children. They also have the limited social scope and less interest. But they are good and above average performer on intelligence tests.

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder: Its symptoms are quite rare. Because in this category the child may lose its communication ability after getting it with two year’s effort. Its symptoms and prevalence are still under observation and under debate by the relevant professionals.

Autism Causes

There are various causes of Autism that contribute to its occurrence here are the following:

Genetical Factors:

The parents advanced age may cause the genes to develop the newborn to have autism. It is to consider that it is also be developed by the genes that are transmitted to the offspring by the parents.

Environmental Factors:

During pregnancy exposure to certain types of environments may cause autism. It is absolutely related to the environment in which the expected women have during pregnancy. Its examples are:

  • Use of Alcohol and drugs
  • Any metabolic disorder
  • Untreated phenylketonuria; pku
  • Rubella; German measles
  • Any general medical condition like  diabetes and obesity

There are not to the point confirmation about the cause behind autism. These are only the assumptions to just go to the exact reason for its occurrence. But researches have shown that the abnormalities in particular areas of the brain may restrict the sensory processing of responses and perceive the output language. Autism awareness may also develop the sense about it and it may cause it prevalence ratio to be at a lesser rate.

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